Nginx rewrite 参数和例子

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  • dodobook
  • 2014/09/26

不断的收集整理更新中.

正则表达式匹配,其中:

* ~ 	//为区分大小写匹配
* ~* 	//为不区分大小写匹配
* !~和!~*	//分别为区分大小写不匹配及不区分大小写不匹配

文件及目录匹配,其中:

* -f和!-f用来判断是否存在文件
* -d和!-d用来判断是否存在目录
* -e和!-e用来判断是否存在文件或目录
* -x和!-x用来判断文件是否可执行

flag标记有:

* last 相当于Apache里的[L]标记,表示完成rewrite
* break 终止匹配, 不再匹配后面的规则
* redirect 返回302临时重定向 地址栏会显示跳转后的地址
* permanent 返回301永久重定向 地址栏会显示跳转后的地址

一些可用的全局变量有,可以用做条件判断(待补全)

$args
$content_length
$content_type
$document_root
$document_uri
$host
$http_user_agent
$http_cookie
$limit_rate
$request_body_file
$request_method
$remote_addr
$remote_port
$remote_user
$request_filename
$request_uri
$query_string
$scheme
$server_protocol
$server_addr
$server_name
$server_port
$uri

结合QeePHP的例子

if (!-d $request_filename) {
rewrite ^/([a-z-A-Z]+)/([a-z-A-Z]+)/?(.*)$ /index.php?namespace=user&controller=$1&action=$2&$3 last;
rewrite ^/([a-z-A-Z]+)/?$ /index.php?namespace=user&controller=$1 last;
break;

多目录转成参数

abc.domian.com/sort/2 => abc.domian.com/index.php?act=sort&name=abc&id=2
if ($host ~* (.*)/.domain/.com) {
set $sub_name $1;   
rewrite ^/sort//(/d+)//?$ /index.php?act=sort&cid=$sub_name&id=$1 last;
}

目录对换

/123456/xxxx -> /xxxx?id=123456
rewrite ^/(/d+)/(.+)/ /$2?id=$1 last;
//例如下面设定nginx在用户使用ie的使用重定向到/nginx-ie目录下:
if ($http_user_agent ~ MSIE) {
rewrite ^(.*)$ /nginx-ie/$1 break;
}

目录自动加"/"

if (-d $request_filename){
rewrite ^/(.*)([^/])$ http://$host/$1$2/ permanent;
}

禁止htaccess

location ~//.ht {
	deny all;
}

禁止多个目录

location ~ ^/(cron|templates)/ {
	deny all;
	break;
}

禁止以/data开头的文件
1
//可以禁止/data/下多级目录下.log.txt等请求;
location ~ ^/data {
	deny all;
}

禁止单个目录

//不能禁止.log.txt能请求
location /searchword/cron/ {
	deny all;
}

禁止单个文件

location ~ /data/sql/data.sql {
	deny all;
}

给favicon.ico和robots.txt设置过期时间;

//这里为favicon.ico为99天,robots.txt为7天并不记录404错误日志
location ~(favicon.ico) {
	log_not_found off;
	expires 99d;
	break;
}

location ~(robots.txt) {
	log_not_found off;
	expires 7d;
	break;
}

设定某个文件的过期时间;这里为600秒,并不记录访问日志

location ^~ /html/scripts/loadhead_1.js {
	access_log   off;
	root /opt/lampp/htdocs/web;
	expires 600;
	break;
}

文件反盗链并设置过期时间

//这里的return 412 为自定义的http状态码,默认为403,方便找出正确的盗链的请求
"rewrite ^/ http://leech.dodobook.net/leech.gif;"	显示一张防盗链图片
"access_log off;"		不记录访问日志,减轻压力
"expires 3d"			所有文件3天的浏览器缓存
location ~* ^.+/.(jpg|jpeg|gif|png|swf|rar|zip|css|js)$ {
	valid_referers none blocked *.dodobook.net *.dodobook.nc localhost 208.97.167.194;
	if ($invalid_referer) {
		rewrite ^/ http://leech.dodobook.net/leech.gif;
		return 412;
		break;
	}
	access_log   off;
	root /opt/lampp/htdocs/web;
	expires 3d;
	break;
}

只允许固定ip访问网站,并加上密码

root  /opt/htdocs/www;
allow   208.97.167.194;
allow   222.33.1.2;
allow   231.152.49.4;
deny    all;
auth_basic "C1G_ADMIN";
auth_basic_user_file htpasswd;

将多级目录下的文件转成一个文件,增强seo效果

/job-123-456-789.html 指向/job/123/456/789.html
rewrite ^/job-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)/.html$ /job/$1/$2/jobshow_$3.html last;

//将根目录下某个文件夹指向2级目录
如/shanghaijob/ 指向 /area/shanghai/

//如果你将last改成permanent,那么浏览器地址栏显是/location/shanghai/
rewrite ^/([0-9a-z]+)job/(.*)$ /area/$1/$2 last;

//上面例子有个问题是访问/shanghai 时将不会匹配
rewrite ^/([0-9a-z]+)job$ /area/$1/ last;
rewrite ^/([0-9a-z]+)job/(.*)$ /area/$1/$2 last;

//这样/shanghai 也可以访问了,但页面中的相对链接无法使用,
//如./list_1.html真实地址是/area/shanghia/list_1.html会变成/list_1.html,导至无法访问。
//那我加上自动跳转也是不行咯
//(-d $request_filename)它有个条件是必需为真实目录,而我的rewrite不是的,所以没有效果
if (-d $request_filename){
	rewrite ^/(.*)([^/])$ http://$host/$1$2/ permanent;
}

//知道原因后就好办了,让我手动跳转吧
rewrite ^/([0-9a-z]+)job$ /$1job/ permanent;
rewrite ^/([0-9a-z]+)job/(.*)$ /area/$1/$2 last;

文件和目录不存在的时候重定向:

if (!-e $request_filename) {
	proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1;
}

域名跳转

server
{
	listen       80;
	server_name  jump.dodobook.net;
	index index.html index.htm index.php;
	root  /opt/lampp/htdocs/www;
	rewrite ^/ http://www.dodobook.net/;
	access_log  off;
}

多域名转向

server_name  www.dodobook.net www.dodobook.nc;
index index.html index.htm index.php;
root  /opt/lampp/htdocs;
if ($host ~ "dodobook/.ct") {
	rewrite ^(.*) http://www.dodobook.net$1 permanent;
}

三级域名跳转

if ($http_host ~* "^(.*)/.i/.dodobook/.cm$") {
	rewrite ^(.*) http://top.yingjiesheng.com$1;
	break;
}

域名镜向

server
{
	listen       80;
	server_name  mirror.dodobook.net;
	index index.html index.htm index.php;
	root  /opt/lampp/htdocs/www;
	rewrite ^/(.*) http://www.dodobook.net/$1 last;
	access_log  off;
}

某个子目录作镜向

location ^~ /zhaopinhui {
	rewrite ^.+ http://zph.dodobook.net/ last;
	break;
}

discuz ucenter home (uchome) rewrite
rewrite ^/(space|network)-(.+)/.html$ /$1.php?rewrite=$2 last;
rewrite ^/(space|network)/.html$ /$1.php last;
rewrite ^/([0-9]+)$ /space.php?uid=$1 last;
discuz 7 rewrite
rewrite ^(.*)/archiver/((fid|tid)-[/w/-]+/.html)$ $1/archiver/index.php?$2 last;
rewrite ^(.*)/forum-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)/.html$ $1/forumdisplay.php?fid=$2&page=$3 last;
rewrite ^(.*)/thread-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)/.html$ $1/viewthread.php?tid=$2&extra=page/%3D$4&page=$3 last;
rewrite ^(.*)/profile-(username|uid)-(.+)/.html$ $1/viewpro.php?$2=$3 last;
rewrite ^(.*)/space-(username|uid)-(.+)/.html$ $1/space.php?$2=$3 last;
rewrite ^(.*)/tag-(.+)/.html$ $1/tag.php?name=$2 last;

//给discuz某版块单独配置域名
server_name  bbs.dodobook.net news.dodobook.net;

location = / {
	if ($http_host ~ news/.dodobook.net$) {
		rewrite ^.+ http://news.dodobook.net/forum-831-1.html last;
		break;
	}
}

//discuz ucenter 头像 rewrite 优化
location ^~ /ucenter {
	location ~ .*/.php?$
	{
		#fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
		fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
		fastcgi_index index.php;
		include fcgi.conf;     
	}

	location /ucenter/data/avatar {
		log_not_found off;
		access_log   off;
		location ~ /(.*)_big/.jpg$ {
			error_page 404 /ucenter/images/noavatar_big.gif;
		}
		location ~ /(.*)_middle/.jpg$ {
			error_page 404 /ucenter/images/noavatar_middle.gif;
		}
		location ~ /(.*)_small/.jpg$ {
			error_page 404 /ucenter/images/noavatar_small.gif;
		}
		expires 300;
		break;
	}
}

jspace rewrite

location ~ .*/.php?$
{
	#fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
	fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
	fastcgi_index index.php;
	include fcgi.conf;     
}

location ~* ^/index.php/
{
	rewrite ^/index.php/(.*) /index.php?$1 break;
	fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
	fastcgi_index index.php;
	include fcgi.conf;
}

相关链接:http://blog.csdn.net/cnbird2008/article/details/4409620
参考地址:http://marc.info/?l=nginx (Mailing list ARChives 官方讨论区)
[Nginx Tips] http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-1685-1-1.html (Nginx 常见应用技术指南)